The American Civil War, commonly referred to by other names, lasted from April 12, 1861, until May 26, 1865. The Union[f] (“the North”) and the Confederacy (“the South”), the latter of which was made up of seceding states, engaged in combat. The conflict over whether to allow slavery to spread into the western regions, creating more slave states, or to forbid it from doing so, which was widely believed to put slavery on the path to eventual extinction, was the main driver of the war.


                                                                                                   Image source: Times record news

The election of Abraham Lincoln as president of the United States in 1860 ended years of political contention over slavery because he opposed its spread into the country’s western territories. Following Lincoln’s election, the first seven slave states in the South seceded from the Union and established the Confederacy in February 1861. Within its borders, the Confederacy captured American forts and other federal property. Under the direction of Confederate President Jefferson Davis, the Confederacy consolidated power over a third of the American people in 11 of the then-existing 34 states. There followed four years of brutal fighting, especially in the South. Although the war’s Eastern Theater was left unresolved, the Union won substantial long-term advances during the years 1861–1862. When Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, declaring all slaves in states in rebellion to be free (applicable to more than 3.5 million of the 4 million enslaved persons in the country), the abolition of slavery was became a war objective. By the summer of 1862, the Union had destroyed the Confederate river navy, followed by the majority of its western army, and had taken control of New Orleans. Vicksburg’s victorious Union siege in 1863 divided the Confederacy at the Mississippi River. At the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863, Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s invasion of the north came to a stop. Western triumphs prompted given the leadership of all Union armies by General Ulysses S. Grant in 1864. The Union organised resources and men to assault the Confederacy from all sides while imposing an ever-tighter naval blockade on Confederate ports. As a result, Atlanta fell to Union General William Tecumseh Sherman in 1864, who then marched to the sea. The ten-month Siege of Petersburg, which served as the entrance to the Confederate capital of Richmond, saw the last big conflicts take place there. Following the Battle of Appomattox Court House, the Confederates fled Richmond, and on April 9, 1865, Lee submitted to Grant, officially ending the war.

Confederate surrenders came in waves after that. Lincoln was killed on April 14, barely five days after Lee’s surrender. Practically, the American Civil War came to an end on May 26 with the Department of the Trans-capitulation, Mississippi’s but the conflict’s official finish cannot be determined with any degree of historical certainty. After May 26’s deadline for surrender, Confederate ground soldiers continued to give up until June 23. By the end of the war, the South’s infrastructure, particularly its railroads, had mostly been destroyed. In addition to the abolition of slavery and the liberation of four million black slaves, the Confederacy fell. After that, the war-torn country began the Reconstruction era in an effort to restore it, admit the former Confederate states back to the Union, and establish civil rights.

One of the most researched and written-about periods in American history is the Civil War. It is still up for discussion in historical and cultural circles. The persistent idea of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy is particularly fascinating. One of the earliest conflicts to employ industrial warfare was the American Civil War. During the conflict, mass-produced armaments, steamships, railroads, telegraphs, and ironclad warships were all extensively deployed. The Civil War is the worst military battle in American history, with a total death toll of between 620,000 and 750,000 troops and an unknown number of civilian casualties. The impending World Wars were anticipated by the technology and cruelty of the American Civil War.

1861 state of the union
States of slavery that broke away before April 15
The reasons why the Southern states decided to separate were complicated and have been debatable throughout history; nonetheless, most academic academics agree that slavery was the primary cause of the conflict. Some historical revisionists who have attempted to present a variety of motives for the war have further confused the issues. The main cause of the 1850s’ rising political unrest was slavery. The North would have more representation in Congress and the Electoral College if slavery were to extend to the territories once they were admitted as states, hence the Republican Party was determined to stop it. In the event that Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won the 1860 election, many Southern leaders had threatened to secede. Following his victory, many Southern. Leaders believed that disunion was their only choice because they feared losing their power to adopt pro-slavery laws and policies as a result of losing representation.  Lincoln stated in his second inaugural speech that “Slaves represented a strange and potent interest. Everyone was aware that the conflict was a result of this desire in some way. The goal of the insurgents was to strengthen, maintain, and expand this interest; the government claimed no authority to do anything more than limit the Union’s territorial expansion.” 

Slavery in America is the main topic.
The fundamental reason for the disunion and the conflict that followed was disagreements among the states regarding the future of slavery While the Constitution was being drafted, slavery was a contentious issue that was never resolved. Since the country’s founding, the issue of slavery had divided it into a slave-owning South and a free North, further confusing the situation. The problem was made worse by the nation’s quick geographical expansion, which continually raised the issue of whether or not new territory should be free of slavery. Prior to the conflict, the topic had dominated politics for decades. The Compromise of 1850 and the Missouri Compromise were two important attempts to resolve the issue, however The Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850 were two significant attempts to settle the issue, but they did nothing more than push out the inevitable confrontation over slavery.

The typical person’s motivations were not always those of their faction some Northern soldiers had no opinion on slavery, although a broad pattern can be identified. The main reason Confederate soldiers fought the war was to defend a Southern culture in which slavery played a significant role. Slavery’s opponents viewed it as an antiquated evil that was incompatible with republicanism. The goal of the containment strategy used by the anti-slavery forces was to place slavery on a course toward eventual extinction by halting its spread. The South’s slaveholding interests blasted this tactic as a violation of their constitutional rights. Due to the substantial money invested in slaves and worries about racial integration, Southern whites thought that the emancipation of slaves would ruin the South’s economy Black people who were once slaves. Particularly, many Southerners feared a recurrence of the 1804 Haiti massacre (known at the time as “the horrors of Santo Domingo”),in which former slaves massacred most of the country’s white population—including men, women, children, and even many sympathetic to abolition—systematically after the country’s successful slave revolt. A historical expression used by opponents of this notion is “a cancer in the public mind,” according to historian Thomas Fleming, who contends that this belief contributed to segregation in the Jim Crow era that followed emancipation.  The attempt by John Brown in 1859 to spark an armed slave uprising in the South heightened these worries.

                                                                                                  Image source: The collecter.com

The abolitionists—those advocating the end of slavery—were active in the decades leading up to the Civil War. They traced their philosophical roots back to Puritans, who believed that slavery was morally wrong. One of the early Puritan writings on this subject was The Selling of Joseph, by Samuel Sewall in 1700. In it, Sewall condemned slavery and the slave trade and refuted many of the era’s typical justifications for slavery American Civil War Political Repercussions
The USA almost split apart 80 years after the Declaration of Independence. A worn-out and indignant country had to figure out how to mend after the horrible American Civil War. The debate over slavery intensified after the Constitutional Convention. To cultivate and harvest lucrative crops like cotton and tobacco, Southern states relied on this harsh institution. Political conflicts between proponents of slavery and abolitionists broke out in the early 1800s as a result of the spread of slavery into new areas. The Confederate States of America, the South’s own nation, was formed in 1860 after Republican nominee Abraham Lincoln was elected president. The Confederacy was vanquished at the end of the catastrophic American Civil War, one of the first conflicts to use industrial warfare in human history. In order to unite the nation and safeguard freshly liberated former slaves, the victorious Union, often known as the North, had to devise a plan.

The US prevailed in the Mexican-American War in 1848. (1846-48). The Mexican Cession gave the United States a huge chunk of land between the Pacific Ocean and Texas, which became a state in 1845 and started the conflict. Immediately arguments erupted over whether slavery would be permitted in this new realm. Slavery was legal in the South, which included Texas, Florida, and all the way up to Virginia. It did not in the North, which extended from Maryland to Canada It would also be crucial that Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam, both from puritan New England, established the Northwest Territory as “free soil” with no slavery. The United States’ size was doubled by this region, which later became the states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and a portion of Minnesota Leading abolitionist and former slave Frederick Douglass
Abolitionists like Theodore Parker, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Frederick Douglass frequently cited the nation’s Puritan heritage to support their cause in the decades preceding the Civil War. The Liberator, the most extreme anti-slavery publication, frequently referenced the Puritans and their principles. Parker penned “The Son of Slavery,” a letter to New England congressmen pleading for their support in ending slavery the Bible apart, Uncle Tom’s Cabin was the best-selling book of the 19th century.

                                                                                                     Image source: getty images.in

Hinton Rowan Helper was an uncommon abolitionist who, “even more possibly than Uncle Tom’s Cabin… stoked the fires of sectional dispute leading up to the Civil War” in his 1857 book The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It. Despite being a native of the South and a virulent racist, Helper was an abolitionist because he believed that slavery “hindered the progress and prosperity of the South,… dwindled our commerce, and other similar pursuits, into the most contemptible insignificance; sunk a large majority of our people in galling poverty and ignorance,… [and] entailed upon us a humiliating dependence on the Free States.” Helper supported Abolitionist societies had more than 15,000 members in the United States by 1840. In the United States, abolishionism rose to prominence as a form of moralism, directly causing the Civil War. Reformers pushed for an outright and urgent repudiation of slavery in congregations, conferences, and journals. However, not all members of the religious community supported abolition. Even the major denominations broke along political lines as the war drew near, creating competing Southern and Northern churches. For instance, the debate over slavery caused the Baptists to split into Northern Baptists and Southern Baptists in 1845. The abolitionist movement did not have a purely theological or moral foundation. The Whig Party grew more opposed to slavery because they believed it was fundamentally incompatible with the principles of capitalism and the free market as well as free work, and that the South was no longer advanced due to slavery. [58] The Republican Party, which had just been founded, took up the mantle of abolition after the Whig Party disintegrated in the 1850s.                                                                              Protectionism
Slave owners valued manual labour that was inexpensive and free of automation. Tariffs and protectionism were favoured by Northern manufacturing interests, but Southern planters sought free trade. The tariff rules were drafted by the Democrats in Congress, who were controlled by Southerners, in the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s. They kept lowering the rates until the 1857 rates were the lowest since 1816. In the 1860 election, the Republicans demanded a tariff hike. After Southerners quit their seats in Congress, the increases were finally put into effect in 1861.  Northerners have complaints about the tariff problem. Neo-Confederate writers, however, have asserted that it is a Southern complaint. The tariff issue was not brought up by any of the factions in 1860–1861 who suggested agreements to prevent secession. [102] North and South American flyers seldom ever referred