Image via Ms Kamna Kaushal

Robotics is the combination of science, engineering, and technology that develops machines called robots that mimic or replace human actions. Robots have long fascinated popular culture, with examples including R2-D2, the Terminator, and WALL-E. These extravagant, humanoid robot concepts frequently appear to be caricatures of the actual thing. But are they more foresighted than we think? Robots are increasing intellectual and mechanical skills, implying that an R2-D2-like machine is not out of the question in the future.

The breadth of what is called robotics expands as technology advances. In 2005, 90 percent of all robots were found in automobile assembly plants. These robots are mostly made up of mechanical arms that are tasked with welding or screwing on specific elements of an automobile.

Today’s definition of robotics encompasses the invention, creation, and deployment of bots that do jobs such as exploring the planet’s toughest climates, supporting law enforcement, simplifying surgical operations, and executing rescue missions.

Robotics Explained

While the world of robotics is expanding, several features of a robot remain consistent:

  • Robots are made of mechanical parts. The mechanical aspect of a robot aids it in completing duties in the environment for which it was created. For example, the Mars 2020 Rover’s wheels are independently powered and built of titanium tubing, allowing it to firmly grip the hard terrain of the red planet.
  • Electrical components are required for robots to manage and power the machines. Essentially, an electric current — such as a battery — is required to power the vast majority of robots.
  • Robots all have some level of computer programming. A robot would be little more than a piece of simple hardware if it did not have a set of instructions informing it what to do. Inserting a program into a robot allows it to know when and how to do a task.

As artificial intelligence and software continue to advance, we’re likely to see the promise of the robotics sector sooner rather than later. Robots will become smarter, more adaptable, and more energy efficient in the near future as these technologies improve. They will also be a key focus point in smart manufacturing, where they will take on more challenging issues and contribute to the security of global supply networks.

The robotics business is full of admirable promises of advancement that science fiction could only dream of a few decades ago. Robots will be discovered executing activities that humans could never imagine of doing alone, from the darkest depths of our oceans to thousands of miles in space.

Etymology of the Robot

Robot comes from the Czech term robota, which meaning “forced labor.” The term initially originated in the 1920 drama R.U.R., in reference to the characters in the play, who were mass-produced employees incapable of thinking creatively.

Robotics Classifications

Mechanical bots exist in a variety of shapes and sizes to do the tasks for which they are intended. The design, functioning, and degree of autonomy of all robots differ. Robots ranging in size from the 0.2 millimeter-long “RoboBee” to the 200-meter-long robotic freight vessel “Vindskip” are emerging to perform tasks that humans cannot.

  1. Manufacturing Robots

Industrial robots repeat the same operations without moving. These robots are used in sectors where repetitive and boring duties are required.

An industrial robot is never fatigued, and it will operate day and night without complaint.


Image via California’s Mfg. Network

     2. Self-driving Robots

Autonomous robots are self-sustaining. They employ a program that allows them to choose which action to do based on their environment.These robots frequently acquire new behaviors by utilizing artificial intelligence. They begin with a short routine and then modify it to be more successful in a task they accomplish. As a result, the most successful routine will be replicated.

   3. Robots that can be controlled remotely

Remote controlled robots are utilized to do complex and unpredictable jobs that autonomous robots cannot perform owing to operational uncertainty.

Complicated activities are best completed by someone who have real brainpower. As a result, a person can use a remote to guide a robot. Humans can do dangerous jobs using remote controlled operations without being present at the location where the duties are performed.

   4. Autonomous Mobile Robots

Image via Editorial

Mobile robots can use locomotion to move from one point to another. It is a self-contained machine that can navigate an uncontrolled environment without the use of physical or electromechanical guidance mechanisms. Mobile Robots are classified into two types:

(a) Rolling robots:

To move around, rolling robots require wheels. They can search easily and rapidly. However, they are only functional in flat terrain.

(b) Walking robots:

Image via Kittipong Jirasukhanont

Robots with legs are typically utilized in rocky terrain. The majority of walking robots have four legs.

What Exactly Is a Bot? What Exactly Is Software Robotics?

Software robotics, often known as bots, are computer programs that perform tasks autonomously. A chatbot is a frequent use for software robots. A chatbot is a computer program that replicates online and phone conversations and is frequently employed in customer support scenarios. Chatbots can be simple services that respond to questions with an automatic response, or they can be more advanced digital assistants that learn from user data.

How do robots work?

  • Autonomous Robots

Image via Autonomous Robot Market

Independent robots can operate totally autonomously and without the intervention of a human operator. These often necessitate more intensive programming yet allow robots to replace humans in risky, mundane, or otherwise impossible tasks ranging from bomb disposal to deep-sea navigation to factory automation. Independent robots have shown to be the most disruptive to society, as they eliminate jobs while simultaneously opening up new opportunities for progress.

  • Robots that are reliant on humans

Image via humanoid robots

Dependent robots are non-autonomous robots that interact with humans to supplement and enhance their existing actions. This is a relatively new sort of technology that is continually being pushed into new applications, although advanced prostheses controlled by the human mind are one type of dependent robot that has been accomplished.

In 2018, Johns Hopkins APL built a renowned example of a dependent robot for Johnny Matheny, a patient whose arm was severed above the elbow. Matheny was supplied with a modular prosthetic limb so that researchers could observe its use over time. Electromyography, or impulses sent from his amputated leg that control the prosthetic, is used to control the MPL. Matheny improved his control of the MPL over time, and the impulses sent from his severed leg got smaller and less variable, resulting in higher accuracy in its movements and allowing Matheny to do activities as delicate as playing the piano.

Robotic Components

Consider the robot structure, which shows many components of robots:

Image via

Consider the following important elements of robotics:

  1. Power Sources: The robot’s operating power is supplied by batteries, hydraulic, solar, or pneumatic power sources.
  2. Actuators: are energy conversion devices found within robots. Actuators’ main role is to transform energy into movement.
  3. Electric motors (direct current/alternating current): Motors are electromechanical components that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Motors provide rotating movement in robots.
  4. Sensors: Sensors collect information about the job environment in real time. Robots are outfitted with a tactile sensor, which mimics the mechanical features of human fingerprint touch receptors, and a vision sensor, which is used to compute depth in the surroundings.
  5. A controller: is a component of a robot that coordinates all mechanical system motion. It also takes input from the surrounding environment via numerous sensors. A microprocessor is at the heart of the robot’s controller, which is coupled to the input/output and monitoring devices. The controller’s command triggers the motion control mechanism, which is comprised of multiple controllers, actuators, and amplifiers.

Locomotion of a Robot

Locomotion is a means of movement from one location to another. Robot locomotion refers to the mechanism that allows a robot to move around in its environment.

There are several types of locomotion:

  • Wheeled /sLegged
  • Tracked slip/skid
  • Combination of legged and wheeled movement.

Robot Obstacle Avoidance

Image via  SriTu Hobby

The obstacle avoider robot is a critical component of mobile robotics. Obstacle avoidance is a task that detects the existence of an obstacle in the route of a robot or any vehicle.

An obstacle-avoiding robot is an intelligence device that protects the robot from physical harm. It detects and overcomes impediments on its path autonomously.

Robot Sensor Varieties

There are various types of sensors to pick from, and sensor properties are used to determine which type of sensor to utilize for a specific application.

1) Light Sensor

A light sensor is a transducer that detects light and generates a voltage differential proportional to the intensity of the light falling on it.

Photovoltaic cells and photo resistors are the two major types of light sensors used in robots. Other light sensors, such as phototransistors and phototubes, are rarely utilized.

2) Sensor of Proximity

The existence of a close object can be detected by a proximity sensor without any physical touch. A proximity sensor’s operation is straightforward. In proximity sensors, the transmitter sends electromagnetic radiation while the receiver receives and analyzes the return signal for disruptions. As a result, the amount of light received by the receiver from its surroundings can be used to detect the presence of a nearby object.

3) Sensor of Sound

Sound sensors are typically microphones that detect sound and return a voltage proportional to its level. A basic robot can be constructed to navigate based on the sound it receives by using a sound sensor.

4) Sensor of Temperature

Temperature sensors are used to detect changes in the temperature of the surrounding environment. It is based on the idea of voltage difference for a change in temperature, and this voltage difference will offer the corresponding temperature value of the surrounding environment.

5) Accelerometer Sensor

The acceleration sensor measures acceleration and tilt. A device that measures acceleration is known as an accelerometer.

LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

The Liquid Crystal Show (LCD) is a type of electrical device that is commonly used in numerous applications to display information in text or image format. The LCD’s screen is used to show alphanumeric characters. The LCD display has eight data lines and three control lines for connection with the 8051 microcontroller.

Robotic Line Follower

A line follower robot is a self-contained automaton capable of following a path. The path can be viewed as a white line on a black surface (or vice versa) or as a magnetic field that is undetectable.

Line follower robot specs:

A simple and effective closed loop system is formed by sensing a line and guiding the robot to stay on path while constantly correcting erroneous moves using a feedback mechanism. As programmers, we have the option to “teach” the robot how to follow the line, which provides the robot the human-like ability to respond to stimuli.

Consider the following practical use of a line follower robot:

  • Industrial robot guidance system for movement on the manufacturing floor
  • Autonomous vehicles on the road with an implanted magnet.

Robot with Hand Gesture Control

Image via Intermediate

When there is a component of controlling robot with remote or many different switches, it becomes rather difficult and complicated in many applications of controlling robots. Controlling a robot or machine via switches or a remote is particularly difficult in industrial robotics, medical applications for surgery, and military applications. As a result, a new concept for controlling a machine with a hand movement is developed, which will concurrently control the location and movement of the robot.

Mobile Controlled Robot Using DTMF

Wireless-controlled robots, in general, use RF circuits, which have the disadvantages of having a limited frequency range, a limited working range, and limited control.

These constraints can be circumvented by using a cell phone to control a robot. It has the advantage of having a working range as vast as the service provider’s coverage region, powerful control, and no interference with other controllers.

Robotics Applications:

Image via Easy

Fighting forest fires is an example of conservation.

Manufacturing includes working in factories as well as finding and transporting products in warehouses.

Companionship: offering company to the aged.

Assisting in surgical operations in healthcare.

Complete meal delivery and last-mile fulfillment.

Vacuuming and mowing the lawn are household chores.

Performing search-and-rescue missions in the aftermath of natural disasters.

Landmine detection in combat zones is a military operation.

Robotics in Healthcare

Image via Sarah Moore

COVID-19 testing and immunizations are distributed using robots.

384,000 industrial robots are shipped around the world to conduct diverse manufacturing and warehouse tasks.

Cruise, an autonomous car business, performs its first two robotaxi test rides in San Francisco.