THE HARVARD UNIVERSITY
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In Cambridge, Massachusetts, there is a private Ivy League research university called Harvard University. It is the oldest higher education facility in the United States and one of the most renowned and highly regarded institutions in the world. Originally known as Harvard College and named after its first benefactor, the Puritan preacher John Harvard, it was established in 1636.
There are twelve academic faculties within the university in addition to the Harvard Radcliffe Institute. Other faculties solely provide graduate degrees, including professional degrees, while the Faculty of Arts and Sciences offers study in a broad range of undergraduate and graduate academic areas. The 209-acre (85 ha) Cambridge site, centered on Harvard Yard, a neighboring campus immediately over the Charles River in the Boston neighborhood of Allston, and the medical campus in the city’s Longwood Medical Area make up Harvard’s three main campuses Harvard is the wealthiest academic school in the world thanks to its endowment, which is estimated to be worth $50.9 billion. The undergraduate college’s endowment revenue enables it to admit students regardless of their ability to pay and to offer considerable financial help without the need of loans With 79 libraries, Harvard Library is the largest academic library system in the world. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, in its early years Harvard College primarily trained Congregational clergy. The Massachusetts colonial legislature authorized Harvard’s founding, “dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lay in the dust.” Throughout the 18th century, its curriculum and student body underwent progressive secularization. Harvard became the most prestigious intellectual and cultural institution among the Boston elite by the 19th century. Following the American Civil War, during the lengthy presidency of Charles William Eliot (1869–1909), the college established numerous allied professional schools, transforming it into a cutting-edge research university. Harvard was a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900 James B. Conant guided the institution through the Second World War and the Great Depression.
Numerous heads of state, Fields Medalists, Nobel laureates, members of Congress, MacArthur Fellows, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, and Fulbright Scholars have all graduated from Harvard. According to most measures, Harvard is among the top universities in the world for its alumni in each of these categories Eight US presidents and 188 living billionaires, the most of any university, are among its graduates. There have been fourteen Harvard-affiliated Turing Award winners. In addition to founding numerous renowned businesses, students and graduates have won 110 Olympic medals, including 46 gold, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 10 Academy Awards.
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In the colonial, pre-Revolutionary era, Harvard was founded in 1636 by the decision of the Great and General Court of Massachusetts Bay Colony. The earliest printing press to be found in British North America was purchased by the institution in 1638 After John Harvard, an English clergyman who had passed away shortly after emigrating to Massachusetts and left it £780 and his collection of roughly 320 volumes, it was given the name Harvard College in 1639. In 1650, the charter that established Harvard Corporation was approved.
“To increase learning and propagate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers should fall in the dust,” was how the university’s mission was stated in a 1643 publication In its early years, the college produced a large number of Puritan minister and provided a classic curriculum based on the English university model (many colonial leaders had attended the University of Cambridge). The curriculum also adhered to the principles of Puritanism. Many of Harvard’s first graduates went on to become Puritan preachers despite the university never having a formal affiliation with any particular religion Increase Between 1681 and 1701, Mather presided over Harvard College. John Leverett, who presided over the institution in 1708, was the first head of state who was not also a clergyman, shifting it away from Puritanism and toward intellectual freedom.
A monument of John Harvard at Harvard Yard
Congregational clergy in the 19th century widely embraced Enlightenment concepts of reason and free choice, which put them and their congregations at clash with more conventional, Calvinist groups’ 1–4 A conflict erupted over their successors after the deaths of President Joseph Willard in 1803 and Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan the following year. The election of liberal Samuel Webber as president two years after liberal Henry Ware was elected Hollis chair in 1805 marked a change at Harvard from conservative to liberal, Arminian ideals. 4–5 24When Charles William Eliot served as president of Harvard from 1869 to 1909, he removed the curriculum’s emphasis on Christianity and encouraged student autonomy. Although Eliot played a significant role in He was more driven by Transcendentalist Unitarian beliefs influenced by William Ellery Channing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and others of the era than by secularism in his efforts to secularize American higher education.
Landscape vista painted in watercolor by Richard Rummell in 1906, looking northeast. In the latter half of the 19th century, a few women were allowed to enroll in the graduate programs at Harvard. Students at Radcliffe College, which since its foundation in 1879 had paid Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women, started attending Harvard seminars with males during World War II The medical school first allowed women to enroll in 1945 Since 1971, Radcliffe women’s undergraduate enrollment, instruction, and housing have been largely under Harvard’s authority; Radcliffe was formally incorporated with Harvard in 1999.
As Harvard’s wealth expanded and eminent professors and thinkers joined the university in the 20th century, the university’s reputation grew. The establishment of new graduate academic programs and the rise of the undergraduate college were both factors in the university’s explosive enrollment increase. As the female counterpart to Harvard College, Radcliffe College has evolved as one of the most prestigious institutions for women in the country. The Association of American Universities welcomed Harvard as one of its original members in 1900.
According to sociologist and novelist Jerome Karabel, the majority of the student population in the early 20th century was made up of “old-stock, high-status Protestants, mainly Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians. President A. Lawrence Lowell backed a policy change in 1923 that would have limited the admittance of Jewish students to 15% of the undergraduate enrollment, a year after the percentage of Jewish students at Harvard hit 20%. But Lowell’s proposal was turned down. We owe the colored man the same opportunity for study as we offer the white man, but we do not owe it to him to compel him and the white into social relations that are not, or may not be, harmonious, wrote Lowell in opposition to forced desegregation in the university’s freshman residence halls.
From 1933 until 1953, James B. Conant served as president of the university. Conant rekindled creative scholarship in an effort to ensure Harvard’s leadership among the nation’s and the world’s burgeoning research institutions. Conant believed that higher education should be an opportunity for the gifted rather than a privilege for the affluent. As a result, he developed initiatives to find, attract, and assist young people with talent. General Education in a Free Society, a significant 268-page report published by Harvard professors in 1945 under Conant’s direction, is still one of the most significant works in curriculum studies. Between 1945 and 1960, admissions procedures were standardized to allow a wider range of students to attend the institution. For instance, following World War II, special exams were created so that veterans may be admitted The undergraduate college started to accept aspirant middle-class students from public schools rather than just students from elite New England prep schools; more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but there were still relatively few Blacks, Hispanics, or Asians compared to the representation of these demographics in the general population In the second half of the 20th century, Harvard gradually grew significantly more diversified.
On July 1, 2007, Drew Gilpin Faust, a dean of Harvard Radcliffe Institute in the twenty-first century, was elected as Harvard’s first female president Faust retired in 2018 and joined the Goldman Sachs board Lawrence Bacow was chosen as Harvard’s 29th president in July 1st, 2018. December 15, 2022, it was reported that Claudine Gay would succeed Bacow when he retires in 2023. The 209-acre (85 ha) main campus of Harvard University is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, about 3 miles (5 km) to the west-northwest of downtown Boston. It also includes parts of the Harvard Square area. The Yard houses Memorial Church, libraries like Widener, Pusey, Houghton, and Lamont, as well as administrative buildings like Massachusetts Hall and University Hall the College’s primary academic buildings, notably Sever Hall and Harvard Hall, are located in The Yard and its surrounding environs.
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The Yard or closes by are where the freshman dorms are located. Twelve residential homes, nine south of the Yard near the Charles River and the others half a mile northwest of the Yard in the Radcliffe Quadrangle, are occupied by upperclassmen (which formerly housed Radcliffe College students). Each house has its own dining hall, library, and recreational amenities. It is a community of undergraduates, faculty deans, and resident tutors the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study is located in Radcliffe Yard, together with the Law, Divinity (theology), Engineering and Applied Science, Design (architecture), Education, Kennedy (public policy), and Extension schools. Cambridge is home to certain commercial properties owned by Harvard. The university owns more land in Allston than it does in Cambridge, and it is actively growing there. Plans call for the Business School, a hotel and convention space, graduate student housing, Harvard Stadium, and other sporting facilities to be built or renovated the new, 500,000+ square foot Science and Engineering Complex (SEC) in Allston will house the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences in 2021. The SEC will be close to the Enterprise Research Campus, the Business School, and the Harvard Innovation Labs to promote cooperation between established businesses and startups that are focusing on technology and life sciences.
Harvard School of Medicine
About 3.3 miles (5.3 km) south of the Cambridge campus, on a 21-acre (8.5 ha) facility in Boston’s Longwood Medical and Academic Area, are the schools of medicine, dental medicine, and public health Along with Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children’s Hospital, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Longwood is home to a number of other Harvard-affiliated medical facilities. There are several affiliates spread out over the Greater Boston area, most notably Massachusetts General Hospital.
Encyclopedias and museums
The Harvard Library system is supported by Widener Library. the artwork of Henry Moore Near the Lamont Library, a large four-piece reclining figure
The Widener Library in Harvard Yard serves as the hub of the almost 80 individual libraries that make up the Harvard Library system, which has about 20.4 million books. This makes it the biggest academic library in the world, according to the American Library Association. the Harvard University Archives, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Houghton Library are primarily collections of rare and distinctive items. The public can access the oldest collection of maps, atlases, and gazetteers in America, which is kept at Pusey Library. The Harvard-Yenching Library houses the biggest collection of East Asian language literature outside of East Asia.
Harvard ranked first in the University Ranking by Academic Performance (2019–2020) and Mines Paris Tech: Professional Ranking of World Universities (2011), which evaluated the proportion of alumni from each university that held CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 businesses. Harvard consistently ranks in the top two “dream institutions” in the United States, according to yearly surveys conducted by The Princeton Review. These surveys include responses from both students and parents. Harvard’s engineering program has recently received major funding, and as a result, the university was ranked third globally for engineering and technology in 2019 by Times Higher Education.