List of Emotions: Definitions and Control Techniques


The phrase “a roller coaster of emotions” is undoubtedly one you’ve heard, and it pretty much sums up what might happen on a given day. Humans experience a wide range of complicated emotions on a regular basis But don’t worry; having a range of emotions is not only natural but also expected. Although everyone wants to be joyful, seemingly negative feelings have enabled people to endure difficult circumstances. Our brains’ neurotransmitters adapt to the environment so our bodies can respond correctly.

Our health is in danger when we cope with persistently negative feelings, but there are techniques for managing emotions and identifying emotional triggers, so you may maintain control over your mental and physical well-being.

what emotions are

Emotions are automatic mental or emotional states that result from a person’s environment. They are triggered by the movement of neurotransmitters in the brain in response to stimuli According to researchers, our basic emotions have been hardwired into us since prehistoric times when our predecessors’ emotions developed in reaction to common difficulties. These fundamental feelings are really just a form of survival When specific circumstances arise, they are swiftly, automatically, and unknowingly triggered A common idea is that there are fundamental emotions, highlighting the fundamental and primal feelings that people have on a regular basis. These are the fundamental components of more complicated emotions.

Different researchers on the subject have different ideas about what qualifies as a basic concept and what qualifies as sophisticated or unusual. Here is a brief summary of the main theories in science today involving fundamental emotions: Charles Darwin proposed in the 1870s that all people (and certain animals) exhibit very similar behaviors to convey their emotions. They are distinct, separate entities, he said. He also concentrated on the observable, transient changes in appearance, such as facial emotions.

The “father of psychology,” German physician Wilhelm Wundt, characterized various emotions or feelings as classes rather than as discrete processes in the 1890s. He made the observation that feelings like joy, optimism, fear, concern, and rage are not definite in their definitions and change significantly over time.

Depending on the situation, and time.

Paul Ekman distinguished six fundamental emotions in the 1970s, including anger, fear, contempt, sadness, happiness, and surprise eight fundamental emotions as well as eight derivative ones that are built from two fundamental ones were described by Robert Plutchik in 1980. According to his idea, complex emotions are a combination of two basic emotions. To illustrate this visually, he created a “wheel of emotions” that resembles a color wheel. A new color or complicated emotion is produced when two simple emotions are combined.

List of Emotions

Paul Ekman, a pioneering researcher in the subject who has attempted to identify a list of emotions, is frequently mentioned in works on the topic of emotions in psychology Ekman found that emotional labels were scientifically established, with high agreement on five fundamental emotions, after polling more than 100 experts who study them:

Anger \sFear \sDisgust
Shame, surprise, and embarrassment were additional feelings on the list that between 40% and 50% of scientists said were fundamental Let’s take a closer look at each emotion on the main list of emotions in order to gain a better understanding because there are various complex emotions and even facial expressions included in the list of the five different types of emotions.


1. Anger

Let’s begin with the most contentious fundamental emotion—anger. It can be both internally and externally directed, and it may be challenging to identify during development despite being frequently viewed as a negative emotion, rage is natural and essential for existence. It enables people to defend themselves in hazardous or harmful circumstances feelings in a list of emotions linked to fury include frustrated \sirritated \sinfuriated \senraged \smad \soffended \soutraged \sdispleased \saggravated

2. Fear

A perceived risk to one’s own safety or the safety of others is what instills fear. The “freeze, flight, fight, or fright” reactions that take place in the presence of fear are brought on by the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems, which prime the body to deal with danger this is a typical, necessary emotional response that helped our predecessors deal with challenges and hazards they encountered on a daily basis According to research, a person’s personality and state of mental health influence how they perceive and respond to terror. For instance, even when the threat is viewed by others as less terrifying, a person who suffers from acute anxiety feels more terror Fear-related emotions include the following: nervous \spanicked anxious \sstressed \sworried \shorrified \sconcerned \sunsettled \suneasy \salert When you see a threat of any kind, fear develops. Fear can be minimal or strong depending on the perceived threat. Remember that your level of dread may not necessarily correspond to the severity of the situation. For instance, if you have anxiety, you could experience terror in situations that aren’t particularly dangerous, but that doesn’t make the fear any less real Instead of avoiding fear, face it. It’s normal to desire to avoid the situation that is making you anxious, whether it be driving, having a serious conversation, or meeting new people. However, this frequently makes your fear worse. Try to safely confront your fear instead. For instance, if driving causes you anxiety, go back behind the wheel as soon as possible. If it helps, stays close to home at first, but don’t stay away from it.
Avoid dwelling on your dread. It’s sometimes difficult to think about anything else when fear is so oppressive. However, ruminating, or allowing the same thoughts to repeat themselves repeatedly, might hurt your emotional state. In addition, enhance dread. Try to do something distracting if you notice yourself becoming fixated on a worry or stressful situation. Take a walk or jog while listening to invigorating music, cook using a new recipe, or listen to an audiobook or podcast.
Analyze the fear rationally. Think about your fear for a moment. What can you do about it, if anything? Can you really get hurt by it? What would be the worst scenario if your darkest fear came true? In that situation, how would you react? You can feel less dread if you are aware of how you would handle your fear.

3. Abhorrence

Disgust is strong disapproval and rejection of something offensive, and is thought to have first developed when our ancestors were exposed to potentially dangerous foods Whether it be a smell, a sight, or a concept, disgust, and feelings usually follow an unpleasant experience disgust can also be characterized by:

revulsion \soffensive
nauseating \sdisturbing \sdisapproving

4. Sadness

Sadness, according to Ekman, is a fundamental feeling that happens when a person loses a loved one, fails to accomplish a goal, or experiences a loss of control. According to studies on the various manifestations of sadness, it might lead to tears, chest aches, and a sense of helplessness Every one of these fundamental emotions, including sadness, can occur occasionally. The issue arises when your daily life is affected by persistent sadness.

  • Sadness-related emotions include:
  • unhappy \sgloomy \sheartbroken
  • disappointed \sdisconnected
  • grieving
  • mournful \ssorrowful \shopeless

5. Contentment

Happiness has been characterized since Aristotle as an emotion that comprises of pleasure and a life well-lived (or meaning). Of course, happiness is something that everyone aspires to, but based on our society and expectations, different things actually make us happy. According to studies, happiness is well known to be extremely customized since a person’s level of fulfillment is correlated with his or her “wanting” and “liking.”Several phrases that are frequently used to express feelings of joy include:

joyful \selated \shopeful \speaceful \samused
glad \ssatisfied \spleased \sdelighted \samused

Researchers concur that there are additional emotions that merit investigation and acknowledgment outside of those on this list. They consist of:

  1. shame\ssurprise
  2. embarrassment
  3. guilt \scontempt \slove \sawe \spain \senvy \scompassion \sgratitude
  4. Related: Autophobia: What Is It? How to Manage Your Fear of Being By Yourself

How our emotions impact us

Neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain have an impact on emotions. When the brain gets good news, chemical messengers like dopamine and serotonin are produced, giving you the uplifting and comforting feeling that comes with this fundamental emotion However, a reduction in these neurotransmitters results in sadness and the accompanying heaviness In reaction to your experiences and ideas, neurotransmitter levels naturally rise and fall throughout the day. In actuality, emotions help us avoid danger and maintain social connections, which are crucial for life.

The neurotransmitters most frequently linked to both good and negative emotions are:

  • Dopamine\sSerotonin
  • Aminobutyric acid gamma (GABA)
  • Noradrenaline
  • Oxytocin \sAcetylcholine
  • Even though a change in these neurotransmitters is typical and anticipated, persistently unfavorable emotions might negatively affect your health in significant ways. Stress from negative emotional states in the body increases inflammation, raises the likelihood of mental health problems, and weakens the immune system.

According to research in Frontiers in Neuroscience, psychological stress causes alterations in the brain’s inflammatory response and cognitive function. For instance, persistent sadness has a big impact on the development and recurrence of depression To summarize, it’s natural to have negative emotions occasionally, but persistently experiencing them might have serious negative effects on your health. This is precisely the reason you should try to control your emotions and deal with the things that make you feel bad.

How to Manage Them: Recognize Your Emotions

Knowing whatever feeling you are experiencing from the list of emotions enables you to manage or effectively respond to it. Usually, this requires reflection and mindfulness Pay particular attention to the bodily manifestations of emotions, such as trembling or sweating in response to fear, a racing heart in response to sadness, or an increase in body temperature in response to wrath Think about your emotional triggers Emotions might have hidden causes, such as underlying problems or insecurities. If you’re not sure why you’re experiencing a certain mood, look into possible triggers It might actually have an unanticipated cause, such as being exhausted, missing a friend or relative, being hungry, or consuming a poor meal.

Develop mindfulness

Understanding and accepting your feelings is facilitated by practicing mindfulness, a mental state attained by concentrating on your awareness in the present. It is simpler to recognize and comprehend your emotions when you have this present-moment awareness According to research, mindfulness-based interventions are beneficial for psychological health How does one engage in mindfulness? The ideal method is mindfulness meditation, which enables you to concentrate on bodily sensations Any additional quiet thought time is beneficial; for example, going for a stroll outside, doing yoga, gardening, or cooking You may manage your emotions, calm your mind, and work through your emotions with the use of mindfulness or quiet reflection.

Self-care is important.

It’s common to occasionally have out-of-control emotions when you’re in either a good or bad circumstance. The key to managing your daily emotions is self-care. If you are not in tune with yourself and taking care of your health, how can you comprehend and control the emotions Aspects of your physical, social, mental, spiritual, and environmental wellness should be on your self-care checklist Are you maintaining a good, balanced diet, getting adequate sleep, working out, spending time with loved ones, reflecting, and going outside? These are just a few of the daily activities you should perform to support your general wellness.

Even while it seems awkward at first, talking about your emotions can become second nature with practice. Although they are a vital component of who you are, emotions may occasionally be messy, difficult, and downright perplexing. A crucial component of achieving emotional wellness is learning how to identify your feelings and discuss them with others as well as with yourself You don’t have to figure out how to recognize your feelings on your own More than 100 scientists were polled by a prominent expert on emotions Paul Ekman, a psychologist, and he used their responses to create the Atlas of Emotions. Remember that this is only one method of classifying emotions. For instance, a 2017 study claims there are 27 different types of emotions. However, Ekman’s theory of five major categories of emotion provides a useful foundation for unraveling the intricacy of all emotions. The components of each of these five categories are shown below.

Most people prefer to feel content, at ease, and good. You could laugh, smile, or indulge yourself to show how you feel.

  1. You might enjoy something when:
  2. People you care about feel close and connected to you.
  3. Feeling secure and safe.
  4. You’re engaging in an activity that stimulates pleasure in the senses.
  5. You’re totally focused on something.
  6. You experience calm and relaxation.
  7. How do discuss me


For millennia, people have argued about and studied the categories of fundamental emotions. There are five main emotions that scientists tend to agree upon: anger, fear, disgust, sadness, and happiness All of these emotions, both good and bad, are brought on by inputs that change the neurotransmitter levels in the brain. This biological mechanism is natural and essential, and it exists to ensure human survival. People face substantial consequences, such as an increased risk of mental, bodily, and social health issues, when they have persistently negative emotions. Practice mindfulness, recognize your feelings and their causes, and put self-care first if you want to control your emotions.